England and Britain, UK and one and same.
England + Scotland + Wales = Britain
Britain + Northern Ireland = UK (United Kingdom)
The long subjugation of Scotland by England and the wars of independence by Scotland have long and tenacious history. Here is the most famous of them all. The Battle of Bannockburn 24th June 1314.
The Battle of Bannockburn 24th June 1314. Part I
A bit of History;
19 March 1286: Alexander III, aged 44, dies in a fall from his horse en route to be with his new bride Yolande de Dreux in Fife. With his death, the ancient line of Celtic Kings which had ruled Scotland came to an end. His granddaughter Margaret, "The Maid of Norway" becomes Queen of Scots at the age of three.
September 1290: Margaret, Queen of Scots, sails from Bergen for Leith and an arranged marriage with Edward the young heir to the English throne. However, on 26 September 1290, while en route, she dies of sea sickness, still aged only seven, leaving succession in dispute. Scotland became weakened by infighting
30th November, 1992: King Edward I of England took advantage of the situation by lending support to John De Balliol over Robert Bruce, and placed John Balliol on the throne of Scotland demanding in return that Balliol become his vassal. People were not fooled and called Balliol "Toom Tabard" (empty coat/Gown / Kings Gown -he wore was empty Gown as there was no King underneath in real terms. Balliol being ‘Glove puppet of Edward I’).
23rd October, 1295: In 1995, war breaks out between England and France. Edward seeks Balliol’s support. Some Scottish barons are sent to France and on 23 October 1295 Balliol signed a treaty of mutual assistance with Philip IV of France called the ‘Auld Alliance’.
30th Marc h 1996: Edward I declares war on Scotland by marching to Berwick and two-thirds of the 12,000 residents are massacred.
27 April 1296: Edward I defeats the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar, opening the way to his conquest of the country and taking many prisoners, including Andrew Murray and John III Comyn.
8 July 1296: John Balliol is deposed and Edward I Claims direct Rule over Scotland. To ensure that no Celt could make a counter claim, the Englishman carried off the Symbol of Scottish Independence, the ancient “Stone of Destiny”, or “Stone of Scone” as it is also known.
The “Stone of Destiny”, or “Stone of Scone” is small, roughly hewn, rectangular block upon which the Kings of Scotland had long been crowned was taken to England.
On Christmas Day 1950, four nationalist students removed the Stone from Westminster Abbey and drove it north. It resurfaced some four months later following a huge public outcry, having been left symbolically in Arbroath Abbey, draped in a Saltire. It was taken by the police and restored to Westminster Abbey.
On 30 November 1996, St Andrews Day, the Stone of Destiny finally returned to its homeland after being kept by England for 700 years amid much ceremony, and was installed in Edinburgh Castle, taking its place alongside the Honours of Scotland, the country’s crown jewels. Provision is made to transport the stone to Westminster Abbey when it is required there for future coronation ceremonies.
After stealing the symbol of Scottish Independence, the English King set about strengthening his hold over Scotland by Governor in Scotland to rule it on his behalf. He build a network of stone castles or walled towns each occupied by an armed force under a loyal local or English knight.
May 1297: Under 1st resurgence of Scottish Independence, William Wallace sacks Lanark Castle, killing the Sheriff and other English in the town. It is the spark for more widespread rebellion for independence.
Summer 1297: Andrew Murray leads a revolt in the north, captures a series of English castles in the Highlands and the north east, and besieges Urquhart Castle.
11 September 1297: William Wallace and Andrew Murray comprehensively defeat the English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Murray subsequently dies of wounds suffered during the battle.
29 March 1298: William Wallace is titled "Guardian of Scotland".
22 July 1298: William Wallace is defeated by Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace resigns as Guardian and becomes guerilla fighter and keeps on harassing the English.
24 February 1303: 8,000 Scots, not soldiers but tinkers, tailors, farmers all common men faced 30,000 well trained English troops, a professional army. The dying embers of Scottish patriotism burst into vibrant flame and English were routed at the Battle of Roslin. The annihilation of the English army was almost total. Wallace, Comyn, Fraser and St Clair led from the front. http://sinclair.quarterman.org/history/med/battleofroslin.html
3 February 1304: The Community of Scotland under the Guardianship of John III Comyn or the Red Comyn, agrees a peace treaty with Edward I. Scottish patriots look towards for Robert the Bruce.
22 April 1304: Edward I besieges the Scottish stronghold, Stirling Castle. It surrenders three months later when the food runs out.
3 August 1305: William Wallace is betrayed and captured near Glasgow. He is tried in London on 23 August and executed. Sir Symon Fraser was captured in 1306, taken to London, drawn and hung until he was dead, then was beheaded, his headless corpse then was hung again and his head set on a spike on London Bridge next to Wallace's. The chiefs of the Frasers of Lovat are today called Macshimidh in memory of Symon the Patriot.
10 February 1306: Robert the Bruce, the grandson of the Robert Bruce who had competed with John Balliol for the crown in 1292, murders John III Comyn, the Red Comyn, head of one of the most powerful familes in Scotland and his only rival as future king in a church in Dumfries. This brutal act committed on the steps of the Church outraged both Edward and the Pope. The pope excommunicates Robert the Bruce. The Scottish patriots took it as a brave deed of open defiance against the English because Comyn was supported by Edward I.
25 March 1306: Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth with all formality and solemnity. The royal robes and vestments which Robert Wishart had hidden from the English were brought out by the Bishop and set upon King Robert. The bishops of Moray and Glasgow were in attendance as well as the earls of Atholl, Menteith, Lennox, and Mar. The great banner of the kings of Scotland was planted behind his throne.
To be continued Battle of Bannockburn